Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Part 7
I've had cause, over the last couple of months, to link several times to the Open Library's scanned copy of a charming little work; an 1851 edition of Bible Defence Of Slavery. The last time I did so, I downloaded the epub version, thinking it might be a useful work to at least skim, if not read all the way through. No knowledge is wasted in my view, even if it's just accrued for its own sake; not to mention that arguments about whether such defences of slavery are scripturally sound aren't exactly rare, so chances are a little more knowledge of the subject would be of practical use.
No I don't mean the subject matter. I should hope no one reading this would think I'd find it an enjoyable read, so the 'ugh' on that score is unnecessary. No, I mean the epub (and other e-formats). Basically, someone whizzed it through an OCR program, bundled the resulting mess into several e-formats and published them. And when I say mess, I'm not merely indulging in one of my usual little rants about dubious HTML and the like.
Quite simply, the source material—the scanned document—is too scuffed and faded by age—not to mention it having been scribbled on and hand-annotated—for any OCR program to properly convert to text. Errors abound. Nonsensical symbols, misread characters and all sorts of crap make it virtually unreadable in places, and there's hardly a paragraph without at least one error.
So, okay, enough moaning. I took it upon myself to produce a proofed textual version.
Below is the preamble and the first few chapters. I'm planning on spending a fair amount of time on this, so hopefully I'll be able to post large-ish chunks on a regular basis.
Here's why I think it's important…
There are, we can all agree, some shining moments in human history which have been encapsulated in speeches, books, and even pamphlets. Given the subject at hand, the Gettysburg Address seems a worthy example. And they're valuable; no doubt about it. They show us the dreams and aspirations of bygone ages, and highlight the progress we've made as societies. They might not show us the everyday lives of those who never made speeches or wrote books, but they do chart the path of their rights under law and to some extent highlight the conditions under which they lived. (No one, for instance, would have made speeches demanding votes for women, if women weren't being denied the vote. If you come across such a speech, you don't need to have even heard of the suffragette movement in order to tell that women, at that time and place, weren't allowed to vote.)
But works like this, I think, can be—though uncomfortable to read—more important than the speeches of the good and the great. Churchill's wartime speeches are stirring stuff, but without documents like Mein Kampf and the records of the Nuremberg trials, there's nothing to show why it's important who won that war. Without them, a history student in the twenty-ninth century, say, could be forgiven for thinking that it may have been just another land-grab war between rulers, signifying nothing for most people but a possible change of landlord and maybe a different ceremony in church.
So it's important from a historical point of view. But it's also important now.
The theme of this book is, on the surface, a thinly veiled excuse—based, when we turn the light of history on them, on no more than greed and a complete lack of empathy—for keeping one particular group as slaves; but in order to do so, the authors have two main strategies. They attempt to show that the targeted group has been picked out by God to be worthy of being treated as chattel, and they attempt to show that the group in question is, in matter of fact, inferior to the people enslaving them.
The group targeted may change, and factory technology renders out-right slavery in large numbers less attractive, but greedy people and those who are lacking in empathy will, I fear, always be with us; along with their need to justify their actions with scripture ('properly' interpreted or not), with bad or fake science, with bogus political and economical mumbo-jumbo.
There are still people who would and do treat black people as inferior and less-deserving. There are people who think of women in the same way. Or LGBT people. Or foreigners. Or people of certain religions or of certain political persuasions. Think of a way to categorise members of the human race, and there'll be virtually no category which is not thought of by someone, somewhere as other, as second-class, as inferior, as less-than-fully-human, as worthy of death just for being who they are, or for thinking what they think—or, as in the case at hand, as nothing more than a resource to be exploited.
Lincoln shone a beacon into the future and said 'This is what we want to be.'
The authors of this horrible little book unwittingly shone a torch into the dark corners and said—though such was never their intent—'If all else fails, this is what we need to avoid. This is what happens when the greedy, the empathy-free and the downright bigoted get to hold the reigns of human progress.'
We need Martin Luther King and all the others, for they show us the way. But equally, we need to pay attention to, and remember, the words of the bigots, the slaveholders, the actual and the would-be despots. They show us the pitfalls.
Some notes on style.
Obvious printer's and proofing errors have been amended. Nothing drastic: the odd uncapitalised sentence or missing full-stop, that kind of thing. If I run across any problematical ones I may ask on the blog for advice and opinions, but hopefully silly little things is all I'll have to face. And I'd rather, I think, include what might be an error, than risk editing a bygone colloquialism or mannerism; but let's cross that bridge if we come to it.
With the exception of the 'blurb' at the beginning of each chapter, any text in the version I'm putting on the blog, which doesn't fall within the main body—poems, Bible-verses, and the like—is in undecorated blockquotes. When the proofing's finished and I'm ready to do the formatting work in preparation for converting it to an e-book (pdf, mobi and epub), I'll go back through and change it to more appropriate mark-up, but I happen to have a clicky-button for forming blockquotes, and another for the 'blurb' paragraph, so for the moment, it'll do.
There is occasional use of what we would now call British English variants in spelling. It's not an OCR error, and nor is it an 'Oops I used Brit spellcheck' gaff on my part. I assume that American English as we now know it was still, at the time of writing, in the process of diverging from the British.
The only use the authors seem to make of quotation-marks is when indicating speech or quoting written works. Where we would use scare-quotes, the authors seem to prefer to use italics and small-caps; and in a rather slapdash, haphazard manner at that (even more confusingly, both are also, at times, used for emphasis). If there's a convention or pattern to the way they've employed them I've yet to spot it, but I've tried to pay attention to where it appears, and reproduce it faithfully—though no doubt I've missed, or will miss in due course, occasional instances.
On small-caps: I dislike the 'proper' small-caps style, as it reproduces as lower-case if copied and pasted as plain-text. All 'small caps' used in this document are, therefore, actual capitals with a relative font-size of 0.7em.
And I'll shut up and let you read it now, assuming you want to.
DEFENCE OF SLAVERY;
ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND FORTUNES
AS DEDUCED FROM HISTORY, BOTH SACRED AND PROFANE, THEIR
NATURAL RELATIONS—MORAL, MENTAL, AND PHYSICAL—
TO THE OTHER RACES OF MANKIND, COMPARED
AND ILLUSTRATED—THEIR FUTURE
DESTINY PREDICTED, ETC.
BY JOSIAH PRIEST, A. M.,
AUTHOR OF “AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES,” AND MEMBER OF THE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY OF NEW YORK.
TO WHICH IS ADDED
A PLAN OF NATIONAL COLONIZATION,
ADEQUATE TO THE ENTIRE
REMOVAL OF THE FREE BLACKS,
AND ALL THAT MAY HEREAFTER BECOME FREE,
IN A MANNER HARMONIZING WITH THE PEACE AND WELLBEING OF BOTH RACES
BY REV. W. S. BROWN, M.D.,
OF GLASGOW, KY.
SIXTH STEREOTYPE EDITION.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY J. F. BRKNNAN FOR
WILLIS A. BUSH.
Entered, according to act of Congress, on the 24th of February, 1851, by
REV. W. S. BROWN, M. D.,
In the Clerk’s Office of the United States District of Kentucky.
IN presenting the following work to the American public, no apologies are offered. We live under a Government which tolerates liberty of thought and freedom of the press, and in this expression of our honest views and feelings upon a subject relating to the general welfare of the country, we are but exercising a right which belongs to every American citizen. Observation and experience has taught us, that no man’s opinions and principles gain favor with the world by empty apologies and useless excuses; but, that they are generally received or rejected, as they should be, according as they possess merit or demerit. It is a pleasing reflection, that the age of proscription for opinion’s sake, is past, we trust, never again to return; and that the unrestricted interchange of thought and sentiment, which is permitted by the liberal genius of our free institutions, has been productive of the most glorious results—as the rapid spread of civilization and Christianity, the general diffusion of light and knowledge, and the wonderful developments and triumphs of science and art, in this our day and generation, clearly demonstrate. Let the work progress—let the little stone cut from the mountain’s brow, continue to roll onward, gathering strength with its progress—the result will be the full development of the illimitable powers of the human mind, and a final consummation of all the glorious events contemplated in the redemption of the world.
The question, “Is slavery, as it exists in the United States, justifiable?” is one which, at least, admits of discussion. If it be in harmony with the immutable principles of truth and justice, and not a “crime against humanity,” and a libel upon our holy religion, let it be so understood and practised by our honest citizens, whose highest ambition consists in faithfully serving God, and living in obedience to the laws of the country. If not, let the converse be established, and some judicious and practicable system of emancipation and removal provided; and we maintain, without the fear of successful refutation, that a majority of the enlightened slaveholders of the United States, with characteristic promptitude and Christian philanthropy, will liberate their slaves, and contribute to their removal and future support and protection. All that is wanted in the final adjustment of this “vexed question,” is light and knowledge—a fair and candid interchange of thoughts and opinions—a faithful and true exposition of the principles involved in the relation of master and slave. Convince the slaveholder that this relation is incompatible with Christianity and republicanism—he stands ready to abandon it, regardless of the sacrifice. His mind is not sealed against the impressive teaching of truth and reason, nor his heart seared against the moving influences of pure benevolence and true Christian charity. But, hitherto, the agitation of this question has been altogether one-sided, and confined mainly to those in whose action upon this subject, neither right, reason, nor justice, were involved. They have been justly regarded as busy-bodies, and disturbers of the public peace. The question, like the institution itself, is purely of a sectional or local character, involving only the interests of the citizens of those States where slavery exists. For it to be discussed and agitated, and the motives and characters of the slaveholder to be assailed and calumniated by the citizens of other States is illiberal and anti-republican, and savours of ignorance and corruption, or of both combined. But, nevertheless, this unnatural warfare against truth and justice, against law and liberty, has been continued, until the peace and prosperity of a great nation are much disturbed, and our glorious Confederacy well nigh dissolved; until many of our best citizens and purest patriots have began almost to call in question the honesty of the honored dead—the Fathers of the Republic; and to look with distrust and suspicion upon those time-honored institutions which have commanded the world’s admiration, and by which are secured to us the richest blessings of civil and religious liberty. Is it not time, then, that the South should begin to defend herself against the aggressions of these time-serving votaries of error and fanaticism, and show to the world that her peculiar policy and institutions are in harmony with the genius of republicanism, and the spirit of true Christianity? Believing that such is her true policy, and that this proposition is much more consistent and reasonable, as well as more easily established than its converse, we have been induced to give publicity to the following pages in vindication of Southern rights and institutions.
Although we believe that the institution of slavery received “the sanction of the Almighty in the Patriarchal age;” “that it was incorporated into the only national constitution which ever emanated from God;” “that its legality was recognized, and its relative duties regulated by our Saviour, when upon earth;” that it was established in wisdom, and has been wisely continued through all ages, and handed down to us in mercy; and that the relation of master and servant harmonizes strictly with the best interests of the inferior or African race in particular, in securing to him that protection and support which his native imbecility of intellect disqualifies him from securing for himself; yet do we most cordially reprobate any abuse of the relation, by the superior power, or any undue exercise of authority, by the master over the slave—holding it to be an unwavering, uncompromising truth, that a fearful retribution is in reservation for all the violators of the wisely-established decrees of God, in this respect. There are certain obligations and duties which every master owes to his slave, that are as binding and indispensable as are the duties and obligations which be owes to his God, his country, or himself. These discharged, in accordance with the will of high Heaven, and the mere fact of being a slaveholder will not, in our humble judgment, debar a man from an entrance into that “house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.”
Our individual views on the subject of a national system of colonization, as applicable to the FREE BLACK population of the United States, may be regarded, at first sight, perhaps, as somewhat novel, and wanting in the essential qualities of age and precedent, or experience; but the reader may rest assured, that they have been submitted to the inspection of many of our prominent citizens and leading statesmen, and have received their unqualified approval, without exception. The existence of free blacks in any community, whether free or slave, is universally admitted to be an evil of no minor consideration. Their removal, therefore, is a matter deeply affecting the interests and well-being of both races. Their present number and natural increase, places this beyond the reach of individual enterprise. The resources of the general government must, therefore, be brought into requisition in the removal of this, as well as any other evil of a general or national character. How this may be done in this case, in a manner harmonizing with the true interests of both races, is a theme certainly not unworthy of the candid consideration of any American citizen.
In the work of Mr. Priest, on the subject of “Slavery, as it relates to the Negro, or African Race, Examined in the Light of Circumstances, History, and the Holy Scriptures; with an Account of the Black Man’s Color, Causes of his State of Servitude, and Traces of his Character, as well in Ancient as in Modern Times, with Strictures on Abolitionism,” the reader may confidently expect to find a work of great research and ability—one of deep interest, and well worthy of his candid perusal. The author has sought, in the oracles of God, in authentic history, and in the analogies of nature, the key to the mystery of the degradation, through the unchronicled ages of the past, of the negro race. The fact of the inferiority and consequent subordination of the black race to the white, being in accordance with the will of the Supreme Ruler of the universe, is not like a mathematical problem, susceptible of absolute demonstration; yet we think the readers of this work will acknowledge that the author has let in a flood of light upon this deeply interesting subject, through the mist in which ignorance and misguided sympathy has enveloped it. Himself a Northern man, prejudiced, as he admits, in his early education, against the institution, the conclusions at which he arrives, supported as they are by the most powerful train of reasoning, cannot fail to check the suicidal progress of that pseudo-philanthropy, yclept “modern abolitionism.”
Than a knowledge of the races and nations of men, who have peopled the globe since it was created, there can be no subject more interesting. With a view to an elucidation of this description, we present the work before us, in which an attempt is made to give, in some measure, a history of the origin, character, and fortunes, of the negro portion of mankind.
In pursuit of this object we hope there needs no apology, because we have found it necessary to resort to the Holy Scriptures for much important information which relates to our design, as it is well known that those parts of that book which were written by Moses are the eldest writings of the human race now extant, and relate to the very first operations of the human race after the flood. As corroboratory of the developments of that miraculous book, we have also resorted to ancient and modern history, to travels, narratives, &c., which go to aid us in the research.
As to the origin of the negro man, we have, in our cogitations, recollected several curious opinions relative to the subject, which we have thought proper to present, on account of their wild and extravagant character, as follows:
Some have queried, whether the mother of the first negro man might not have been frightened by some hideous black monster of the antediluvian woods—as in the first ages of the world there were many terrible beasts of the wilderness roaming about, whose races are now extinct. There is one creature which existed then, and is not yet extinct, whose appearance, in its native haunts, is very frightful to behold; and this is the black ourang-outang, of which animal there are individuals known to have attained the enormous height of seven feet, covered entirely with shining black hair. The strange effects of fright on the offspring of mothers, is a well known phenomenon in the physiological history of man. Thus, as some have supposed, the negro race was produced, forming an entire new class of human beings, and distinguished from the nature, color, and character of the parents, by a fright of the mother.
Others have seemed to believe, that, in the very first ages of the planet, and long before the creation of Adam, there existed a race of animals, having a resemblance to man, as has the ourang-outang, but of gigantic stature, as well as power, dwelling in communion with other beasts and monsters of that time. From this family of animals, it has been supposed that the negro race was derived, and brought forward by the continual mutations of nature, passing from one change to another in pursuit of maturity, with all things else, arriving at last to their highest point, as exhibited in the presence of the black or negro nations.
It has also been believed, that, at a very early period of time, some community of men have been so situated, in relation to climate, food, and other circumstances, as to have been changed from their original stamp of complexion and character, to that of perfect blacks, thus originating the negro family of man.
Some have imagined, that the origin of the race was a disease of the skin, which, being of an incurable nature, formed at length a radical character, and thus produced this people.
Many have believed, that there was at first as many fathers and mothers created as there are now different races of men, from whom have descended the red, the white, the black, the brown, and the yellow tribes of the human race, discarding the account given in the Scriptures of there having been but one pair of human beings created.
Others have imagined, that the mark set upon Cain by the Divine Power, for the crime of homicide, was that of jet, which not only changed the color of his body, but extended to the blood and the whole of his physical being, thus originating the negro race, a remnant of which they suppose, by means of some craft, or rather outrode the flood, anchoring on some lofty mountain, subsisting on the floating carcasses of the drowned animals till the earth was dried again.
Thus many have mused on the subject of the origin of the negro race. But we reject all these schemes as the baseless hallucinations of visionaries, even the mooted and equally absurd problem that climate, or any other contingency, became the origin of that people, and affirm that a cause of an entire different description from all these gave birth to the race, an account of which we shall give in the work.
As to the mental character of the black nations, considered collectively, we have found them, in all ages, since their appearance on the earth, of but small account when compared with the other races of men, the red and white.
In publishing our opinions, as presented in this work, we have been moved thereto, by the operations of conflicting principles, as held by abolitionists and anti-abolitionists, throughout the entire United States, believing that light was necessary, in order to learn the truth respecting the people in question, namely, the negro race.
We are also anxious to ascertain the cause of this class of mankind being enslaved, in the low and degraded sense of the word.
As to the history of the black portion of the human race it has occupied the pens of more writers than one; on which account we feel that we are not alone in this attempt, and, also, that we have advanced some new, and not uninteresting, opinions, with respect to the time and the occasion of the production of the first negro man.
Together with an account of the origin of this people, we have not forgotten to inquire something respecting the native mental abilities of the race, and whether created equal in that and other particulars with other men. We have, also, had something to say about exalting them in this country to political and social equality with the other citizens of the United States, and whether, were the whites and blacks to become amalgamated, it would be a desirable object, with many other matters of interest.
We have found the history of this race somewhat of a difficult character to describe, as it is far more hidden and obscure than the history of either the red or white race; yet we believe that some progress, in this respect, is made in the work.
Thus, with but few prefatory remarks, we submit our opinions, believing that which we have advanced to be indubitable, however repugnant to the conceptions of many, who fancy they see in the negro’s mind the germs of a prodigious mental power, notwithstanding all the evidence to the contrary, which has witnessed against them for thousands of years, showing that a pall of darkness and obscurity, not occasioned by the acts or the influence of the other races, has rested on the whole being of this people, induced by a higher power than that of man.
As was the deep, when nature first was made,
And earth’s foundations in the waters laid—
When darkness reign’d, the realm of ancient night,
When God sent forth his Word, and there was light;
So is the race of Ham, a darkling sea,
Which now invites the truth, that light may be,
O’er which, if we have sent a single ray.
Then have we gain’d our aim, and look for day.
Complexion of the Parents of the Human Race; Kind of earth Man was made of; Power of the Hebrew Language in giving Names; Adam and Eve both called Adam by the Creator; Complexion of the Antediluvians; Curious Chronology of the Holy Seed, from Adam to Jacob, the immediate Head of the Jewish Tribes; The opinions of some that Adam was created black, refuted; Personal Appearance of Adam and Eve, in Paradise, before the Fall; With many other Curious Matters
Origin of the Negro Race; Argument to ascertain this; Causes of the great varieties of Human Complexion; Doctrine of Climates and Local Causes to produce such varieties refuted; Impossibility of Human Parents producing any other complexion than their own without a miracle; Proofs that white, black and red men are found in the hottest regions of the globe, and have been thus in the same latitudes for thousands of years; No Negroes on the earth till many hundred years after Adam’s creation; The precise time of their origin, when and where; No climate forms, or causes the origin of human characters; Birth of the first white man, when and where; No white man on the earth till many hundred years after Adam’s creation; Argument to ascertain this; The Hebrew Language that of Adam, as well as of Noah and the Patriarchs; Meaning of the word Ham; Of Japheth and Shem; Reasons why God produced men of different constitutions and colors than had the first man; With many other curious matters
Adaptation of men and animals to the countries and circumstances of their being; Early settlements of the first nations after the flood; Three races of men, black, red and white, in the family of Noah; Great difference between the formations of the bodies of white men and negroes; reasons why the skulls of black men are thicker than those of the whites; These differences noticed by ancient Historians; Negroes not as liable to infectious diseases as white men; interesting notice by Herodotus, respecting the heads of negro men; Curious formation of their feet; Reasons why Extraordinary fact respecting the Negro’s skin being filled with myriads of little cups of water; The reasons why; With many other curious matters
Proof of the existence of the Negro race too near the time of Noah, and in his neighborhood, to allow of the doctrine of climate to have been the cause of this; Remarks of David in the Book of Psalms, on this subject; In the Book of Chronicles on this subject; In the Book of Genesis on this subject; Names of all the sons of Ham, the first Negro; The countries they settled, after the ruin of the Tower of Nimrod; respecting the color of the Egyptians; Herodotus’s account of this matter, as well as of the color of all Africans of his age; Proofs that they were always black, from the very beginning of their existence; Curious account of the wife of Moses: Proofs of her being a Negress, and of the race of Ham; Statement of the prophet Jeremiah, that Ethiopians were black; If the three sons of Noah were all of the same complexion, then follow certain results, fatal to the veracity of the Scriptures; Hercules; Was Nimrod the grandson of Noah, and the origin of all the fabled Herculeses of all the early nations; Some curious traditions of African authority, respecting their own origin; With many other curious matters
The three sons of Noah, all born more than a hundred years before the Flood, aided in building the Ark; Reasons why the Divine Being produced two new races of men different from Adam, Change of the climates of the Globe effected by the Flood; Beauty of the earth before the Flood; Wife of Ham and the wives of the other sons of Noah; Who they were; Respecting straight-haired Black men; The cause. Ham, their father having been woolly-headed; Egyptian mummies; One man only between Noah and Adam; Landing of the Ark on a mountain; Noah descends; Plants a vineyard; Drinks new wine; Falls asleep; Ham’s conduct on the occasion; Noah’s curse of the whole race of Ham; Description of Mount Ararat; The first tents of Noah; Early settlements at the foot of the mountain; Plate of the family of Noah, showing the different complexions of his sons; Arguments and reasons against the amalgamation of the races at first; Argument that Noah’s curse of Ham was God’s judicial decree that slavery was thus entailed upon the Negro race; Character of Ham, from his youth till the curse; Argument that the curse was not a mere prophesy, but a decree judicial
Proofs from the Scriptures, that the curse of Noah upon the race of Ham, as a judicial act, is endorsed by the law of Moses; Comparative view of all the orders of servants among the Jews, as the hired Hebrew servant, the bought Hebrew servant, the voluntary Hebrew servant, and the Negro or Canaanite slave; Remarks on the subject of the strangers, of whom the Jews might take usury, and of whom they might not take usury; Respecting who the strangers were, who they should not enslave, or use as bondmen; A seeming contradiction in the law on this subject reconciled; Perpetual slaves to be bought of the Negro heathen of old Canaan, as directed by the law; strictures on Abolitionist opinions, respecting the meaning of the law relative to servants; Character of Noah and Lot rescued from abolitionist aspersions; Strictures on the opinions of abolitionists, respecting the word BUY, as applied to the purchase of bondmen, in the law of Moses, with other matters of their setting forth; Difference between the condition of Hebrew servants and their Canaanite slaves, with respect to the jubilees, and other matters; Proofs that the Hebrews bought and sold Negro slaves under the sanction of the law—even going to Africa for that purpose; Enslaving of the persons of the Amalekites under the eye of Moses; slaves of the Patriarchs bought, with money; A curious query of abolitionists answered; With many other matters
Arguments and positions of abolitionists favoring a belief that the Scriptures recognize the negro man as being equal with the other races, in point of blood and otherwise, refuted; Mark of Cain; What it was; No black men or negroes before the flood except one; Difference between the secreting power of the blood of white and negro men; Evidences that the Supreme Being puts a higher estimate on white than on black, as colors or complexions; Consent to this difference by the blacks themselves, though incidentally given, according to the accounts of travelers in Africa; A curious argument of abolitionists in favor of negro equality replied to, with many other interesting matters
Moral and civil character of the negro race; Acts of the negro Sodomites; Their lewdness, &c; Proofs from many authors respecting their amours with dumb beasts; As well from the Scriptures; Of this the Canaanites were guilty; as well as the Egyptians; Moses’s testimony to this; Herodotus’s testimony from his own observations when in Egypt; Gales’s testimony, Sonnini’s testimony; Testimony of the Prophet Ezekiel; Curious sexual formation of the negro race; Lewd customs of the ancient Egyptians about their temples, as seen by Herodotus; Some traits of character among the negroes of all countries at the present time, in America, and everywhere; Dreadful practices of the women of Egypt; Writer’s apology for plain writing on matters of this description; Proofs that Jezebel and all her priests were black, with some account of her character as a negress and a wanton; account of automaton images made for lewd purposes by the women of those times; Pictures and images of the Canaanites; Influence of these doings of the negroes of those ages on the Hebrews; Curious reason of the Jewish Rabbi; why the dogs would not eat the head and hands of Jezebel; Horrid customs of the African negroes; Respecting the marriages of their young women, as related by Herodotus; Corresponding character of the Africans now in these particulars, as related by travelers; Rollin’s testimony to the same thing
Pretended mental equality of the negro race with white men refuted, as held by abolitionists; Comparative view of the races, as to their doings in the world; Proofs that the ancient Egyptians, nor any of the negro nations, were not the authors of either arts or sciences; Proofs that the arts and sciences, comprehending a knowledge of letters, were known before the flood, and in the house of Noah, and by the first patriarchs; Curious discoveries made in the foundations of the tower of Babel by Sir Robert Ker Porter; A knowledge of letters since the flood derived from the first patriarchs, and not from the Phœnician blacks; but little advances made in architecture by the first Egyptians, till after Solomon; The pyramids built by the shepherd kings, a race of copper-colored men of the blood of Shem, and not by the blacks of Egypt; For thousands of years the tribes of Africa have made no advances in civilization; The reasons of this; Works of the Canaanites, as it related to architecture, derived from the Euphrates, or the example of the Shemites, and the people of Japheth; During the whole history of negro Carthage, they made no advances in literature; Rapine, plunder, and dealing in slaves, being their trade; Architectural works of the races of Shem and Japheth long before the tower was built, or the negroes exit to Africa; Near resemblance of the Simia race as the ourang-outang, and many of the Africans; Respecting their appetites; Cannibalism, &c., in all ages; Insensibilities of the negroes to bodily pain; Meanness of the negro spirit; Their cruelties to their slaves; With many other curious matters
The subject of the amalgamation of the white and negro races examined; which event, by some men, seems to be greatly desired; The voice of God, in nature, against it; Horrid results, were the amalgamation of the races to become universal; Lowering of the present standard of the powers of the human mind; Changes in the physical formation of the human body, as extant in the nations of white men, in their approximation to the form of the ourang-outang, through the influence of negro amalgamation; Deterioration of the mental image of God, as given to the keeping of the white race; Negroes’ brains found to be less in weight and measure than the white man’s; Dodging of abolitionists on this question; Anticipations of some men that amalgamation will finally become universal, so as to put down slavery in this way; Slavery among the African negroes before they knew white men; Stealing each other; Murdering of children among them; Many facts respecting the near approach of various negro tribes to the form of the ourang-outang; Indifference to pain, when under surgical operations; Corresponding insensibility of the mind, with respect to the moral feelings of the heart, as well as to the sufferings of others; Cruelty to the aged and the sick; Pretended obsequiousness of some abolitionists to negroes, with a view, as they say, to their exaltation; Natural enmity between negroes and white men
Inquiries whether the statements of Noah, respecting the race of Japheth, or the white nations, enslaving the descendants of Ham, have been fulfilled, and are now in progress to that effect; Number of the sons of Japheth; Their great power; Countries they settled at first; Nations now known of that progeny; First cities built by them, which was earlier than any of the others; Description of the first operations of men near Ararat, during Noah’s lifetime after the flood; Respecting Melchisedek, who he was, which is in connection with the subject; Travels of Shem among the first settlements; Worship of Baal, or the fly god, now among the Africans; Nimrod and the wild beasts, with a plate; Shem, the son of Noah, was Melchisedek; SEYONS, the first city of mankind after the floods built by the whites; First instances on a great scale of white men enslaving the race of Ham in ancient times, and respecting its continuance; Certainty of the fulfillment of God’s decrees, and the veracity of the Scriptures; Strictures on the opinions of abolitionists; Their opposition to the Bible if it upholds slavery; Views of St. Paul respecting negro slavery, as set forth in the New Testament; Vast numbers of slaves in the Roman empire in St. Paul’s time; Their dreadful condition; Curious opinion of abolitionists, as a reason why Christ did not reprove slavery; Nimrod and the tower, with other matters
Inquiries whether the Scriptures have, either in the Old or New Testaments, abolished slavery, as abolitionists assert that they have; Query, if they never sanctioned it, how could they abolish it? The famous passage of Isaiah, chap. lviii, on which abolitionists found their argument in favor of the scriptural abolishment of slavery, examined, and found to have no allusion to the subject; all the Jews, their elders, nobles and kings, enslaved the race unreproved; Reproofs of the prophets, for the Jews enslaving their own people beyond the jubilees, but not the negroes; The famous passage of Exod. xxi, 16, which respects the stealing of a man to enslave, or to sell him, examined, and found to have no allusion to negroes, while abolitionists assert that it does; Isaiah’s opinion respecting the Jews enslaving their enemies, chap, xiv, 2; Abolition argument against slavery, founded on the law of love toward our neighbor, replied to; Abolition argument, charging the institution of negro slavery with an attempt to usurp the sovereignty of God over the souls of slaves, replied to
A further exhibition of the opinions and doings of abolitionists in America; Consequences, if they carry their plans into effect; Sympathy is the lever by which they operate; Men should beware; how they array themselves against the decrees of God; Mysterious providences of God toward man; Proposal to abolitionists, by the author, to assail other mysterious providences of God, as well as the one which respects negro servitude; Reckless opinions of abolitionists respecting the southern states; Effects of freeing the negroes in the British West India Islands; Effects, were the slaves of the southern states freed all at once; Proofs respecting the insincerity of English philanthropy toward enslaved negroes, and of their non-reliance upon the labor of freed slaves; Proofs of a suspicion that English vessels are now engaged in getting slaves from the interior of Africa, as formerly; Consequences, should the Union become divided on the slave question; Great possessions and power of the English all round America; Their designs; Intended possession of the Oregon territory; Cruelties of the English in India, where they have conquered; Coalescing of American abolitionists with the English, on the subject of American negro slavery, as shown in their speeches in London, with many other matters
Replies to various abolition Questions proposed to the author; Circumstances in which men find themselves possessed of slaves beyond their control, which is held to be God’s providence in securing negro slavery, in agreement with his decree by Noah; Difference of negro sensibilities from that of the whites, on being separated from wives and children, proven by facts; Argument of abolitionists in favor of negro equality, founded on God’s having given the rule of all animals, as much to the blacks as to the whites, replied to; Ham and Nimrod’s opposition to the religion of Noah, founded on their hatred to him, on account of the curse, who originated idolatry in the world; None but negroes engaged in the project of the tower; Happiness and well-being of the negro race seem to lie in the direction of the white man’s control; Fates of all the ancient negro kingdoms; Different estimate of the negro, respecting human liberty and its uses, from the white man; The races set out, after the flood, with equal opportunities, but who has won the prize? Practical undervaluing of the negro character by abolitionists; A curious position of abolitionists, which supposes the hiring out of the race of Ham to the other races would fulfil Noah’s curse, replied to; a certain great objection of abolitionists to slavery, which charges owners of slaves of giving them no wages, replied to; The patriarch, nor did the Jew, pay slaves any wages as hired men, with many other matters
That the Gospel doctrines and their tendencies is against negro slavery, as asserted by abolitionists, shown to be a mistake; Examination of the golden rule of our Savior, in relation to this matter; That the condition of slaves among the Jews was a condition of comparative comfort, as is asserted by abolitionists, refuted; Care of slaves, as far back in time as the days of Job and Abraham; The subject of judicial law and the law of love examined, in relation to negro slavery, and are found to harmonize; The great and stronghold of abolitionism in support of negro equality, and the propriety of amalgamation by marriages, founded on God’s striking Miriam, the sister of Moses, with leprosy, because she found fault with her brother for having married an Ethiopian woman, overturned and shown to be blasphemous; Curious fact of the blood of the negro race being guarded against, as affecting the blood of the line through which the Messiah was to come; First preaching of the Gospel directed to the countries inhabited by white men, not negroes; This was done afterward; All the present arts of the world nearly of white men’s invention, not negroes’, with many other deeply interesting subjects
HISTORY OF THE NEGRO RACE.
Complexion of the Parents of the Human Race—Kind of Earth Man was made of—Power of the Hebrew Language in giving Names—Adam and Eve both called Adam by the Creator—Complexion of the Antediluvians—Curious Chronology of the Holy Seed, from Adam to Jacob, the immediate Head of the Jewish Tribes—The opinions of some that Adam was created black, refuted—Personal Appearance of Adam and Eve, in Paradise, before the Fall—With many other curious matters
THAT we may elucidate the subjects alluded to on the title page of this work, it is of importance to ascend very high toward the beginning of time in this investigation, even up to the creation of the first human pair. By this method, and this only, do we hope to arrive at length to a knowledge of the desired objects.
To ascertain the true origin of the Negro, or African race, at the very threshold of the work, is exceedingly appropriate, as, without such a discovery, we shall appear to wander where no light shines to illume the way, amidst the mazes of ancient times.
How often do we hear questions like the following? From whence came the Ethiopian, or black man? Who was his father? Did he spring from Adam, or some other race? Can it be, that from one and the same source, the white, black and red portions of mankind proceeded, with all the hues and shades of complexion which mark the human race? If so, is it not exceedingly mysterious that there is not now, nor never has been, the occurrence of a variety so marked and distinctive, as is black, white and red, proceeding from the same parents naturally? Surely, if nature, in the beginning, or in the first ages, produced from the same origin different races of men, as to their complexions and physical constitutions, she ought to produce the same, in these later ages, in order to be consistent with herself in this particular, as she is known to be in all others. These are questions the first to arise, whenever this subject is referred to, by the inquisitive and the lovers of knowledge.
But as we pass in the prosecution of the work, we hope to answer the above queries, and show the reader the true origin of the negro race, as well as that of the others, the white and red—there having been, in reality, but these three on the earth, as the yellow and the brown, with all the other shades, are but derived from an amalgamation of the three others, which were prior and radical, as we shall show in due order.
On this subject, nature, or rather God in nature, has instructed us, that without the intervention of Divine power, there could, and never would have been, but one general complexion of the people of the globe, and that one complexion would have been like the first parents, whatever that complexion was. If the first two of human kind were created white, they could never have been the parents of black and red men. If they were created red, they could never have been the parents of black and white men. If they were created black, they could never have been the parents of white and red men, as they could naturally procreate only their own complexion.
Since the creation of man upon the earth, there never was produced from the same parents a variety of complexion (except in the case of the Albino’s production, which is now considered to be only the effect of disease); this particular, the producing of varieties, is a trait of the nature of beasts, but not of man, who, in this particular, are more fixed, being created in a way which has set him above the winds and the weather, as it relates to his physical being.
Here it is proper to inquire what then was the complexion of the two first of the human race, Adam and Eve, and the antediluvian world, their offspring?
In relation to this extremely curious, as well as interesting subject, we shall refer first to a very ancient, and a very learned historian, namely, FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS, who says, in his work on the Antiquities of the Jews, Book i, p. 12, that Adam, the first man, was created red. The following are his words: “God took dust from the ground and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called ADAM, which, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies one that is red, because he was formed of red earth, compounded together, for of that kind is virgin or true earth.”
The kind of earth which Josephus calls virgin or true earth, was, no doubt, of a very peculiar character and appearance, or he would not have called it pure or virgin earth, in distinction from all the other earths of the globe, of which it is said, that there are nine. How this man came by a knowledge of this circumstance, we cannot tell, except he derived it from the term Adam, or from a tradition of the patriarchs arising out of that circumstance, his creation from red earth, and handed down from the house of Noah.
For this very reason, doubtless, it was written by Moses, Gen. v, 2, that God called the two parents of the human race by but one name, which was that of ADAM, in which name was comprehended, as well their natures as their complexion. God did not give the first woman the name of EVE; it was Adam who did this, when he saw that she was to become the mother of all the human race. ADAM was the name which God gave to the woman as well as to the man at first, as shown above from the text of Moses.
THIS circumstance should not be allowed to pass till it shall have made its due impression upon the mind of the reader, which is as follows: “Male and female created He them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.”
In accordance with this statement of Josephus, in rendering a reason why God called the two first human beings by but one name, and that name being Adam, or the red man and woman, we find that the Hebrew language establishes that the words Adam, Adamah, Adatni, and Admah, have all a similar meaning.
First—ADAM, as above, signifies earthy man, red; second—ADAMAH, signifies red earth, or blood; third—ADAMI, signifies my man red, earthy, human; fourth—ADMAH, signifies earthy, red, or bloody; all of which words are of the same class, and spring from the same root, which was Adam, signifying red, or copper color.
From a view of this fact, it is difficult to account for the reason of the name of the first man and woman, unless they were created red, instead of white or black, as it is well known that the Hebrew language is governed in its power of naming visible existences, as of animals, fowls, fishes, &c., by their appearances or natures, and frequently by both, as in the case of the name Adam, which not only represented the hue of his skin, but that also of his intellectual existence or human nature.
Thus this Jewish historian, as well as the genius of the Hebrew language, furnishes us with a clue, like the golden thread in the labyrinth of the subterranean palace of ancient Thebes, leading to the right conclusion on this subject, namely, that Adam, with all the antediluvian race, were red, or a copper colored people.
But on this subject there is other testimony corroborative of the above, though but incidentally afforded, and yet is of the highest possible authority. This evidence is found in the writings of Moses, in the book of Genesis, chapters five and eleven. In this book is written, by a competent hand, a brief, yet perfect, history of the cosmogony of the earth, as well as a narrative of the births and deaths of the patriarchs, from the beginning to the time in which he lived, a lapse of years consisting of 2553, and about 1481 years before the birth of Josephus, who was a mere lad at the time of Christ’s crucifixion.
This incidental evidence, in relation to the belief that Adam was created red, is afforded by Moses, in tracing the genealogical descent of one of the sons of Adam, namely, that of SETH, from his father down to the patriarch Jacob, who was the immediate progenitor of the twelve tribes of the house of Israel.
Now, as the Jews are red, or a dark copper colored race, in their pure and unamalgamated condition, aids in proving that Adam was also of the same complexion, because SETH, an immediate son of Adam and Eve, was the direct progenitor of the Hebrew, or Jewish people, commonly called the lineage of the holy seed. See Genesis, as above alluded to, v and xi; also, chapters xxi, xxv and xxxv, where the true genealogy of that race is traced out, coming down from Adam to Noah, then from Noah to Abraham, and from thence to Jacob, the head of the twelve tribes of the Jews.
To please the curious, we will give an extract from those chapters of the book of Gen. v, xi, xxi, xxv, xxxv, respecting this genealogy, which is as follows:
SETH, the son of Adam, was the father of ENOS, who was the father of CAINAN, who was the father of MAHALALEEL, who was the father of JARED, who was the father of ENOCH, who was the father of Methuselah, who was the father of IMMECH, who was the father of NOAH, who was the father of SHEM, who was the father of ARPHAXAD, who was the father of SALAH, who was the father of EBER, who was the father of PELEG, who was the father of REU, who was the father of SERUG, who was the father of NAHOR, who was the father of TERAH, who was the father of ABRAHAM, who was the father of ISAAC, who was the father of JACOB, who was the father of the twelve tribes of ISRAEL. Thus the genealogy of the descent of the Jews is made out, and as it is well known that the Jews, in their pure and unamalgamated state, are red, or copper colored, we prove, by this fact, in connection with the foregoing evidence, that the antediluvians, with the father of the human race, were red men and women.
But, if it is necessary to add any other circumstance, corroborative of the above conclusion, we may mention that the Arabs, or Ishmaelites, are red, or copper colored, as well as the Jews, and are alike the descendants of Abraham, who was of the race of Shem as above shown, one of the sons of Noah.
In the existence of the Arabs, we have a tangible and an abiding evidence, that the Jews were a people who were copper colored, as the Arabs are brethren of the Jews, and have never mixed their blood with that of other people as much as the Jews have. The reason why they have not, is the peculiar location of their country, it being situated along the eastern coast of the Red Sea in Asia Minor, and is an almost unapproachable desert of sand, in the very heart of Arabia, where, from the remotest ages, they have subsisted in wandering hordes, living, many of their tribes, wholly by rapine and plunder, amalgamating but little with other nations, who have been deterred from conquering the country by the horrid desert and storms of flying sand, so that they have remained a distinct aboriginal people from the age of Abraham and Ishmael, the son of Abraham, in the very face of all the surrounding countries, the same in every age.
Thus, from the foregoing facts, we believe it is made clear that the complexion of Adam, Eve, and the antediluvians, was neither black nor white, but red only.
Some, however, and persons of high reputation, too, have imagined that Adam was created black, and that his descendants have, in many cases and countries, been changed into other hues and complexions by the action of the elements. But had this been the fact, Adam would not have been called Adam; some other word or appellation would have been his name, as we shall further show bye and bye.
In relation to this subject, should the reader desire to know why we have followed the line or genealogy of Seth, the third son of Adam, when the Scriptures speak of two other sons, and Jewish history of at least thirty, and of as many daughters, why, therefore, select this Seth in preference to all the others? The answer is, the descendants of all the other sons were lost in the flood, there remaining even of this lineage, the family of Seth, but one thread, and this was Noah; there was, therefore, no other genealogy to trace.
Most people in Christian countries have imbibed the opinion that Adam, Eve, the antediluvians, the Jews, the old prophets and patriarchs, were all white men, most assuredly; but this is a mistake, as is evident from the foregoing. Adam, therefore, in his primitive condition, before he had fallen, and covered his limbs with clothing, was a glorious personage to look upon—being of a bright ruddy red, like an image of gigantic size, formed of native copper, instinct with life and motion. Thus, when he moved in the groves of Paradise, he glowed in the sun’s rays like some celestial being, gathering from the down bending limbs of the trees the ripe but newly created fruit. Such was Eve, also, his heaven-made bride, though less in stature and more delicately shaped. From her head, formed so as no Greek could sculpture the Parian marble, there fell a silken shower, the black and glossy tresses of her hair (like the glory of the heads of angels, as written by St. Paul), far below her sylph-like waist, enshrouding all her person as with a robe, in the gleamy tissues of attenuated jet, while through this, as the winds softly whispered and played therewith, was seen the bright and fulgent limbs of the first of woman kind. Every motion of her agile form showed her to be the immediate work of God, while the red flush of health, and immortal vigor, mantled her bosom and whole person, like the deep tints of the early sun, flashing athwart the disc of a cloud, varying every moment as she changed her attitudes, and as the various passions of her sinless soul mingled and flowed through her being.
But Adam was of a mightier cast; all the powers of his body and mind being more dauntless and masculine, decision and force sat enthroned on his face, beamed in his eye, and was redolent on every limb, well fitted and formed to become the head of the newly made world, and the race of gigantic nations of the antediluvians, whose lives reached for many ages—the vast amount of nearly a thousand years. Such was the first man and woman of the human race, but were somewhat changed by the entrance of sin, which not only affected the hearts and natures of Adam and Eve and their race, but tinged the beauty of their complexion, changing it from a bright florid red to the dark hue of common copper, and awfully agreed with the still darker passions of their fallen souls, who, in this image, brought forth their progeny red in complexion, and beclouded in mind.
Thus God ordained, and this was surely right,
That the first man should not be black nor white,
But of a copper hue, a gloomy red,
Half way between the two, our primal head.
Origin of the Negro Race—Argument to ascertain this—Causes of the great varieties of Human Complexion—Doctrine of Climates, and Local Causes to produce such varieties refuted—Impossibility of Human Parents producing any other complexion than their own without a miracle—Proofs that white, black and red men are found in the hottest regions of the globe, and have been thus in the same latitudes for thousands of years—No Negroes on the earth till many hundred years after Adam’s creation—The precise time of their Origin, when and where—No climate forms, or causes the origin of human characters—Birth of the first white man, when and where—No white man on the earth till many hundred years after Adam’s creation—Argument to ascertain this—The Hebrew Language that of Adam, as well as of Noah and the Patriarchs—Meaning of the word Ham—Of Japhet and Shem—Reasons why God produced men of different constitutions and colors than had the first man—With many other curious matters.
HAVING thus ascertained, as we believe, the color of the first human beings, the question naturally rises here, how there came into existence other persons of our race, with different complexions, such as a jet black, and the snowy white, vastly varying from the original red.
It has long since been counted the extreme of folly to suppose that complexions, so far removed in likeness, as are black and white, to have been produced by climate, location, manner of living, or any such thing, as many have believed.
This opinion, that of the power of mere circumstances to produce the entire characters, both of complexions and formation of the bodies of the different races of men, is now given up as an error by the philosophy of the age. This acknowledgment stands recorded on the pages of our Encyclopaedias and literary works of the time. These declare, after due examination and argument, that the coldest regions of the earth have not materially changed the color of the skin, formation of the body and limbs, or character of the hair of the heads of the different races of men.
Though the African negro man may have dwelt ever so many ages in the coldest regions of the earth, yet he is a black man still, with his peculiar formation of body, and more peculiar hair, which is generally a perfect wool, there has been effected no material change by any such causes.
The same is equally true, as it relates to the white man, who, though dwelling in the lowest latitudes of the south, near and on the very equator, for ever so many ages, is not changed in shape, the character of the hair of his head, nor materially in his complexion. The children of white parents, born in these burning climes, are the very same as when born in cold countries. There is no difference.
It is true, however, that the skin of such persons, when exposed to the air and the rays of the sun, undergo a change called tanning, but this circumstance proves nothing in favor of a radical or material and final change from white to black; because this tanning is always more or less removed by a change from a hot to a colder climate.
The same fixedness of character attaches to the red or copper nations over the whole earth, as neither frigid, torrid, or temperate climates have any effect on their complexion; they remain forever the same. In the formation of their bodies, the color, length, and straightness of the hair of their heads, there is no material difference, whatever their modes of living may be, or wherever they may have dwelt. The Indians of the cold regions of the north, or of the high cold latitudes of the south beyond the equator, are as dark and tawny as they are in the temperate and hot climates.
It is the same with the Arabs of the Red Sea, on the northern as well as on the southern side, in Africa, Yes; this complexion, the copper color, the original and first hue of the human race, holding a grade between black and white, is as strongly fixed in the blood of that race as is the black and white in the blood of the other two races.
In proof of this doctrine, the changeless character of those three radical and first complexions, irrespective of all contingencies, we notice that on the eastern coast of Africa, in latitude five degrees north, have been found jet black, copper colored and white inhabitants. This part of Africa is called the Magadoxa kingdom. The whites found in those regions, are supposed to be the descendants of the ancient Romans, who once had great possessions in Africa, after the fall of Carthage, which took place B. C. about 140 years. The Greeks, also, from earliest time, were settlers more or less in Africa.
This fact, that of white inhabitants being found resident in that negro country, is stated by John Leo, who wrote a history of ancient Africa in the Arabic language.—Morse Uni. Geo., Vol. ii, pp. 754 and 781.
PROCOPIUS, a Greek historian, of the sixth century, 1200 years ago, speaks of a race of fair complexioned people with ruddy countenances and yellow hair, who dwelt far within the Lybian country, which is a region of Africa, south and west of ancient Egypt, who, it is likely, were of Greek and Roman origin also.
The same people were found by Dr. Thomas Shaw, the antiquary, who wrote in the 17th century, and says, that they retained their fair complexions and yellow hair, although a lapse of more than a thousand years had transpired from the time of Procopius, and that of Dr. Shaw. The latitude of their country is between 10 and 12 degrees south of the equator.—Amer. Enc, Vol. viii, part 2, p. 668. “In Abyssinia, which is a region of Africa,” says the Universal Traveler, page 467, “there are found a population of many tribes of various colors, as black, copper color, and white, or nearly so.” How is this? Why does not the climate make them all black alike, if the black color of the negro is the work of climate alone? But nothing is more false than such an opinion.
That time cannot obliterate the distinctive traces of national or original character stamped on the first races of men, was the opinion of the Rev. Michael Russell, LL. D., author of Views of Ancient and Modern Egypt, Palestine or the Holy Land. He says, in regard to the people of Ethiopia, who are now, and have been for more than 2300 years, a mixed people, mixed with the Arabs, a copper colored race, and though, by their language, it is impossible to distinguish one from the other, yet by their physiological qualities in features and form, they are easily distinguished from the Arab blood, however intimate the mixture might be, which no length of time can obliterate—the negro blood appearing as palpable as it does when mixed with the whites.
This author, everywhere in his work, respecting the ancient people of Egypt, and the other countries of Africa, carefully distinguishes the negro man, or race, from the other dark races and tribes not having the woolly head, and the other characteristics of that family of man.
As to the other dark races of the earth, not mixed with negro blood, we have but little to do in this work; our whole or chief aim being to illustrate, as well as we can, whatsoever properly belongs to the origin, character and fortunes of the people known as the real negro men.
On this subject, the highly popular lectures on physiology, by Professor Lawrence, maintain that the longest series of ages are found incapable of changing the negro race from their blackness, whatever the climate may be.—See Lawrence’s Lectures, p. 257, and many other parts of the work.
This being true, of which we cannot doubt, it is shown, and even demonstrated, that at some ancient period of time, this color must have had its origin without owing it to the influence of climate, and was so radically fixed by some competent power, in the blood and existence of the parent of the negro race, that no lapse of ages, climate or other circumstances, are found capable of bleaching from the blood and skin of the race; of which power we shall treat in due order.
To prove this doctrine, Professor Lawrence, in the above cited work of his, adduces in opposition to those who endeavor to maintain the effect of climate and circumstances in producing the negro race, instances where the different complexions of the family of man have not been occasioned by such causes. All the north of Africa, he says, is occupied by a race agreeing nearly in character with the Celts of Europe, who are of the whites, the ancestors of all the present nations of that country, as well as of the Anglo Americans. In the year 420 of the Christian era, there were thousands of the Vandals, white men of the ancient German race, who, after overrunning all Italy, went even into Africa under the direction of their king, Genderie, where they conquered and totally destroyed the aboriginal race, and erected a kingdom of their own, which endured nearly 400 years, being destroyed at last by the Arabs. Of this race of white men there still are thousands yet remaining in Africa, as well as of the more ancient Greeks and Romans, who, during thousands of years, have not become negroes, except by amalgamation.
He (Lawrence) states also, that the islands of the Indian Ocean, as well as those of the Pacific, are peopled by two distinct races of men. One of these races is of a slender construction, the hair curled and woolly, the stature short, the disposition barbarous and cruel, fleeing with terror from every approach of civilization. The other race is more like the Indians, being of a fairer skin, more humane and civilized, as well as intellectual.
The blacks, or woolly heads, says Lawrence, of these islands are the real aborigines, while the other race is of a later date, from whose presence the more ancient negro man retires into the interior and mountainous districts. It is the same in the island Madagascar, as there also are found two races. One is of an olive complexion with dark, long hair, but the other, the true negro, as black as night.
On the island of Sumatra, which is situated under a vertical sun, where no part of the year affords any abatement of the heat, except by the winds and rains, are found people of quite fair complexions, as well as the real negro. In this very island, continues Lawrence, the descendants of Europeans, after the lapse of ages, are as fair as those born in the country of their parents; but the negroes brought there from Guinea, in Africa, continue as deeply black as when first carried to the island, as they do everywhere else. But on a subject so plain and self-evident, as is the fact of the changeless character of the negro complexion, it would appear almost superfluous to advance arguments, or to quote ancient or modern authorities in its support, when, at the present time, and everywhere before our eyes, occular demonstration is afforded, that neither the color nor character of that people changes; and from which, we at once infer that the origin of this complexion could not have been effected by climate.
In the appearance of the negro race on the continent of America, has there one lineament of countenance, or trait of bodily formation, taken place during the 350 years or more since the first settlements, which promises even an approximation of a final change to white? Is the wool of such individuals, as have not amalgamated with the whites and Indians, a whit less woolly than it was when they were first brought to this country?
If it were a true doctrine that climate acts with a force so powerful on the complexions and formations of the human body, as to change the African race to whiteness in the northern countries, is it not to be dreaded by all, except abolitionists, that the fair skinned Americans and Europeans (who are now flocking to Africa, where, no doubt, many of them will remain forever) may, in process of time, and the operation of circumstances, be all changed in their posterity, to good and substantial black men and women; for if the climate of the north whitens the blacks, the climate of the south must blacken the whites: surely it is a rule that will work both ways if it works at all. But of all this there need be no dread, as all former experience contradicts such a catastrophe.
If, then, the three standing original, radical, and primeval complexions of the human race, RED, BLACK, and WHITE, were not produced by climate, nor other natural circumstances, how, then, were they produced? In relation to the red, we have already shown the origin of that color, which was given to Adam in his creation; it remains therefore to be shown how the other two, the white, and especially the black, had their beginning.
It was with this question that we set out at the commencement of this section, which we proceed to answer as follows:
GOD, who made all things, and endowed all animated nature with the strange and unexplained power of propagation, superintended the formation of two of the sons of NOAH, in the womb of their mother, in an extraordinary and supernatural manner, giving to these two children such forms of bodies, constitutions of natures, and complexions of skin, as suited his will. Those two sons were JAPHETH and HAM. Japheth, He caused to be born white, differing from the color of his parents, while He caused Ham to be born black, a color still further removed from the red hue of his parents than was white, events and products wholly contrary to nature, in the particular of animal generation, as relates to the human race. It was, therefore, by the miraculous intervention of the Divine power that the black and white man have been produced, equally as much as was the creation of the color of the first man, the Creator giving him a complexion, arbitrarily, that pleased the Divine will.
THIS solution of the mystery of the origin of the negro’s color, we trust, will be acceptable, as there appear, in the wide field of conjecture and investigation, no other paths that lead to light but this. The mind, therefore, seems hemmed in, and driven to this conclusion by the arm of resistless necessity, referring the cause of the negro’s color to the arbitrary will and wisdom of God, rather than to the feebler and ineffectual power of contingencies.
But lest the reader may not be as well satisfied as the writer is, that in the above described manner, the negro race had their origin, we shall pass to other evidences of the alleged fact. Should we omit to do this, we may be accused of relying too securely upon what may be termed inferential testimony, as set forth on the above pages; it is our duty, therefore, now, to labor in search of direct evidence to the point, though, in fact, the former to the writer seems fully sufficient.
It will not be forgotten, that we have said above, that Ham, one of the sons of Noah, was born black, with all the peculiarities of the true woolly headed negro man, by the direction of the Divine power, and contrary to the common dictation of nature. To prove this, we shall commence with an account of a circumstance, which, at first sight, may appear of but small moment, in relation to the point desired to be proved. The circumstance we now allude to, is the name which was given to the youngest son of Noah, the father of the negro race, at his birth, and that name was Ham.
But, says one, how can a name, a mere name, assist us in this pursuit? We answer, that the word Ham, in the language of Noah, which was the pure and most ancient Hebrew, signified any thing that had become black; it was the word for black, whatever the cause of the color might have been, the same as the word black, means black in the English tongue.
The language spoken by Noah, is acknowledged on all hands, in all ages, to have been the true Antediluvian Adamic or Hebrew language.
But if this is supposed to be unlikely, on account of the spreading out of the children of Adam in their posterity, over, no doubt, the whole earth, before the flood, and that from necessity, the language of Adam and his immediate house, must have undergone changes during so many ages, as was contained in 1656 years from the creation till the flood; yet there are no doubts to be entertained, that the language of Adam was continued in the line of SETH, which is termed the holy seed, or the life of the Patriarchs down to Noah, and from thence to Jacob, the father of the Jews.
Unless this was the fact, it were difficult to ascertain how the record, or history of the creation, the manners of the antediluvians, the names and the ages of the Patriarchs, in the line of Seth down to Noah, with the deeds and acts of many persons who lived before the deluge, could have been known to Moses, and from him been transmitted to all ages and nations since the great flood. That the accounts now alluded to, were not delivered to Moses by direct inspiration, is shown by there having been a knowledge of these things in the family of Noah, and of course among the descendants of his house, all along from the time of the flood, descending from Patriarch to Patriarch, down to Abraham, and from thence to MOSES; that writer only embodying anew in a book, from older written and traditionary accounts, a history of facts, brought down from beyond the flood by the progeny and lineage of Seth, the third son of Adam, written in the Adamic language.
That information of all these things was possessed by Noah, and the succeeding Patriarchs of the line of Shem, the eldest son of Noah, is evident from Moses’s own account, as he everywhere refers to the fact of Noah, his children and the Patriarchs, even down to Abraham, having a knowledge of the true God. It cannot be well overlooked by the careful reader, how well Abraham and Melchisedec understood the will of God, and the history of past ages, as referred to by Moses’s own account, in his book of Genesis, consequently, could not have been just then made known to him by the Divine inspiration when he wrote that book.
We hope no one will be offended at this, our opinion, for the whole book of Genesis is full of references, to the knowledge of the ancients, of the line of Seth, Noah, Abraham, Melchisedec, and the other Patriarchs before his own time.
In relation to this opinion, that of Moses having derived his history of the creation, and of the progeny of Seth, from written records, we shall have occasion, in the course of the work, to make still more clear, as we are able to demonstrate that the fine arts, with literature and science, as well as agriculture and mechanism, were cultivated before the flood.
We have said, that the word Ham, in the original Hebrew, or Noachian language, was the word for that which was black; in proof of this affirmation, see Adam Clark’s comment on the meaning of the word Ham, Gen. x, 1, who there says, that Ham signified that which was black.
In further proof of this position, we adduce the fact that the word Ham, in the Coptic language, which was spoken by the pure and early, or first Egyptians, was the word for black. Now, as Mezarim, or Mezar, one of the sons of Ham, first of all, after the flood, led a colony to the vale of the Nile, in Africa, but a little south of Judea, which river empties into the Mediterranean, near where the city of Alexandria was built by Alexander the Great. It is certain, therefore, that the language of this Mezar, and his immediate descendants, must have been the same, with the language of his father, who was Ham, and of his grandfather, Noah, who were the people since called the Copts of Egypt.
That Mezarim, first of all, settled the vale of the Nile, is admitted by Greek and Roman, as well as by Jew and Egyptian, in every age. The earliest Egyptians, says Josephus, were called Mezarites, and the country where they dwelt, Mezar, as well as one of their first cities was called Memphis—names and appellations derived from the name of the first settler, or head of the family, who led a party, clan, or colony, to the slimy flats of the Nile, before any other people after the flood.
Josephus, when speaking of this Mezarim,, calls him the first king of Memphis, which, as above supposed, was the first city of ancient Egypt (book viii, p. 19), and, therefore, might well be alluded to as the first king of the country.
But how does this fact assist us in finding out the meaning of the word HAM, in the Noachian language? It aids us as follows: the first Egyptians were called Copts, and have been thus denominated in every age. Now, if this people, who were primitive in Egypt, and but just from the Ark and the tower of Babel, used the word Ham, to point out that which was black, it proves that the same word was made use of, for the same purpose in the family of Noah, among the Chaldeans by Abraham, and of necessity was used for the same purpose by Moses, when he embodied the ancient history of his ancestry, in the book of Genesis, as that work was written by him in the Hebrew language.
To show that the Noachian language, and the language of the first Egyptians, or Copts, was the same in the time of Abraham, we have only to call to mind that, when the Patriarch went to Egypt out of Canaan (to which country he had but lately arrived from Chaldea), whither he went on account of a great famine, there was no difficulty in his oral communications with the people of that country. This, therefore, proves that the language of Egypt, in the time of Abraham, was still the Hebrew language, and was the same which Mezarim, the son of Ham, learned of his father and grandfather, Noah. The Egyptians, therefore, in the use of the word Ham, to denote any thing that was black, acknowledge that their great progenitor was called black in the house of his own father.
It is well known that the Hebrew, or Adamic language, gave names to things and existences, in compliance with the appearance and nature of things to be named, as we have before remarked. It was this circumstance, or the dictating power of the Hebrew language, which governed, when Adam gave names to all the animals brought before him at the time of the creation; when, as yet, he had heard no sound of human voice, except his own, to copy after, yet he went on, without embarrassment, naming them according to the sensation produced in his mind when he looked at, and had considered the creature to be named. Under this very influence, which governed in the construction of the Hebrew language, Adam gave a name to the first woman, whom he called Eve, because she was to become the mother of all living.
The word Eve, in the Hebrew, signifies life, enlivening, nourisher of life, producing and preserving human life. These qualities and powers of the first woman were intuitively and instantly understood by Adam, when he had looked upon her, who then named her according to her nature, which language, like its author, who was God, had infused into it his own image, which was truth—accordingly, when Adam gave the names of all things, the language spoke the truth.
In agreement with this, it is well known that every name, of every being, thing, or existence, has its specific meaning in the Hebrew, and, in this respect, it is different from all other languages of the globe. Let any one reflect a moment on this subject, and see if he can find, especially when examining the names of men in the English, whether they have any specific meaning beyond a mere name.
On this very account, the power of the Hebrew language, in dictating the names of things or beings, the parents of Ham could not well have named that child anything else but Ham, and keep within the bounds of the dialect of their language.
But, in addition to what is already said respecting the Hebrew word Ham, we may remark that it was, in some sense, also prophetic of Ham’s character and fortunes in his own life, and the fortunes of his race, as the word not only signified black in its literal sense, but pointed out the very disposition of his mind. The word, doubtless, has more meanings than we are now acquainted with—two of which, however, beside the first, we find are heat or violence of temper, exceedingly prone to acts of ferocity and cruelty, involving murder, war, butcheries, and even cannibalism, including beastly lusts, and lasciviousness in its worst feature, going beyond the force of these passions, as possessed in common by the other races of men. Second, the word signifies deceit, dishonesty, treachery, low-mindedness, and malice.
What a group of horrors are here, couched in the word Ham, all agreeing, in a most surprising manner, with the color of Ham’s skin, as well as with his real character as a man, during his own life, as well as with that of his race, even now.
Thus far, we have shown that the very name of this youngest son of Noah, is an evidence of no small account; that he was born a negro, with all the physical, moral, and constitutional traits, which mark and distinguish that race of men from the other two races.
The birth of those two sons, Japheth and Ham, being thus miraculously produced, there is no doubt but that Noah, as a prophet, saw, in the births of these children, the hand and design of the Creator. He had already been informed, in some supernatural way, and, doubtless, by the appearance or ministration of angels, that in about 100 years from the births of his three sons, the globe was to be destroyed by water, on which account he had already been at work twenty years in carrying forward the erection of the ark, when Shem, Ham and Japheth were born.
As a philosopher and a prophet, Noah foresaw, in the ruin of the earth by water, that its mild, healthy, and pristine climates would undergo a horrid change; and of necessity inhabitants of different characters, constitutions and complexions, would be wanted to people it; on which account he bore patiently, for the sake of the Divine purposes, the misfortune of the strange and monstrous production of his wife, in the birth of Ham, the first negro. For this reason, God produced the two new races.
In reference to the foregoing arguments, which respect the cause of Ham’s name, we notice that after the flood, when children were added to his family, the same circumstance, their complexion, seems to have exerted an influence on their names also. CUSH was one of the sons of Ham, which word also had a reference to that which was black. Cush, Cushan, Cushi, and Chu–Shan–Rish–A–Thaim, are all of the same or relative import, and especially the word “Cushanrishathaim,” signifies Ethiopian blackness, as well as the blackness of iniquity.
On this very account, the ancient country of Ethiopia, situated in Africa, in the region of the head waters of the Nile, which was settled first of all by the family of Cush, was called Cushan, as well as Ethiopia, or the country of the blacks.
The. meaning of the word Ethiope, which is also a Hebrew word, signifies blackness, a name given to the country, on account of the color of its first inhabitants.
Even the word negro, is derived from the Hebrew word Niger, and signifies black. Niger, is a great river of Africa, and was thus originally named, on account of black men having first settled the countries of that river; and hence arose from earliest time the word negro, and applied to the race of Ham, and no other people.
CANAAN was the name of another of the sons of Ham. But this word signified a trader or merchant, and seems to have pointed out the pursuits of his progeny, rather than their color. It was from this son that the Phœnicians, Tyrians and Zidonians, with all the tribes of the land of Canaan which was Phœnicia itself, proceeded, who were a trading seafaring and mercantile race.
There was, however, a place in this country of Canaan, or Palestine, a district that was called Chusi, inhabited no doubt by a colony or family of the race of Cush.
The word Canaan, therefore, appears to have been prophetically given, to that son of Ham, pointing to the pursuits, rather than any ether peculiarity of that branch of Ham’s race.
The word Japheth, is a Hebrew word, and was given as a name to one of the sons of Noah, which also had its prophetic meaning, and pointed out the fortunes of Japheth’s race, which was to consist of great enterprise, enlargement and renown in the world; one who was to excel, and even to rule over the races of his two brothers; which as we shall show in due order, has been wonderfully fulfilled. But there is another meaning in the word Japheth, which is of immense importance to the doctrine set forth in this work, viz., that Japheth was born a white man, as well as Ham with a contrary hue, proving to a demonstration, if we may be allowed to use so strong a term, that in the family of Noah the two complexions had their real origin.
This peculiar meaning is found in the translation of the word Japheth, by the Rev. James Creighton, A. B., a most accomplished Hebraist, in his Dictionary of the Scripture, proper names, p. 162. This great linguist states that one of the meanings of the word Japheth is fair, or white, which cannot be said of black, as black is not fair. From this translation we learn that Japheth was a fair white man, on whose face and form there was stamped in the eye of his father, the sure sign of great intellectual endowments betokening renown, enlargement and rule among men, wherefore, he could give him no other name, than the important word Japheth, or the fair and ruddy white son, his fortunes remaining to be fulfilled in the course of time, while his father, acted upon by the great beauty of this child, gave him his name and blessed him, as the progenitor of a race who were to fill the world with their glory and their numbers, as is now the fact, before the eyes of all men, for the white man, and the white woman, are paramount in all the improvements of the earth.
SHEM, was the name of another of the sons of Noah; which word also had its meaning, and was renown, praise or greatness, prophetically pointing out the character of his race, but doubtless more particularly, the renown of the genealogy of the holy seed, or line of the Patriarchs, Prophets, the Jews, and of Jesus Christ, who came of the line of Shem. On these accounts, the renown of the house of Shem, has been great in all the earth.
The Jews have, in every age, been a wonderful people, who were produced by miracle as in the birth of Isaac, when his parents were too old to have children, and have been preserved by power, equally miraculous, carrying out and maintaining the significations of the word Shem, which was the name of their great progenitor.
In the opinion, that there was, somewhere, in ancient ages, three distinct colors of the human family, we are by no means alone or singular. This was the opinion of the very celebrated philosopher. Dr. Mitchell, late of New-York, which opinion he published, with many curious matters to the world.
But Dr. Mitchell has not told us at what period of time, these complexions had their commencement, whether in the family of the first man, or at some other period—or whether there was created three distinct fathers to the human race, as many men do now believe, and probably was the opinion of Mitchell.
Professor Lawrence, whose volume of Lectures on Physiology we have already quoted, is of this opinion, see p, 257, who wholly disallows the power of climates to cause the color of the aboriginal negro; but, like Dr. Mitchell, fails to inform us how that, or the other complexions, had their beginning. He seems, however, to have felt that as he was giving an opinion on the subject of human complexions, and that if climates could not have been the cause, he was, therefore, in reason, bound to say something respecting the origin of the negro’s black skin. The cause of this he rather thinks, was some ancient disease of the surface of the bodies of a tribe of people, which, by long continuance, became so fixed in their nature, that it formed a permanent and national character, as now seen in all the world, of the negro race.
But from this opinion we dissent, as diseases do not work their own cure, and still retain the very evidence of that disease, which is the black of the negro’s skin. It is allowed that the negro tribes, of all men, are the most healthy, their limbs strong and agile, their skins smooth, soft and silky—long lived and free from diseases; which facts but poorly accord with the idea of a diseased skin and, of necessity, diseased blood.
But we are fully satisfied, that the two complexions, black and white, as they appertain to the human race, had their origin in the family of Noah, as we have contended on the foregoing pages. SUCH a cause is, to the writer’s understanding, far more reasonable than any other problem, that as yet has been imagined; such as the climates, a diseased state of the skin, or a father distinct from the father of the other races, as many have believed.
But as we have much to say in the following section, relative to the same subject, though traversed in the light of other evidence, we shall here close the present chapter.
Thus now from Adam’s blood, in Heaven’s sight,
Two other bloods were made, as black and white.
From whom, as from two springs, two torrents roll
Of tribes and nations, to the final goal.
Adaptation of men and animals, to the countries and circumstances of their being—Early settlements of the first nations after the Flood—Three races of men, black, red and white, in the family of Noah—Great difference between the formations of the bodies of white men and negroes—Reasons why the skulls of black men are thicker than those of the whites—These differences noticed by ancient Historians—Negroes not as liable to infectious diseases as white men—Interesting notice by Herodotus, respecting the heads of Negro men—Curious formation of their feel—Reasons why—Extraordinary fact respecting the Negro’s skin being filled with myriads of little cups of water—The reasons why—With many other curious matters.
ADAPTATION of men or animals as to their location, regarding their physical powers, propensities and appetites, favoring their comforts and well being, is a grand law of God in nature. The polar bear has his dwelling amid mountains of snow and ice, the elephant on the burning plains of the equator, the eagle in the heaven above, and the fishes in the depths of the ocean and other waters of the globe, where each creature, though occupying conditions and locations diametrically opposed in nature, rest and rejoice in their places.
Among men reckoned in classes, as belonging to distinct families or nations, the earth has also been divided by the operation of the Divine hand, and suited to their several natures. To the white race, the descendants of Japhet, the northern regions of the earth were given. To Shem and his descendants, the red or copper colored race, the middle regions or temperate clime, north of the equator, was allotted. But to Ham and his race was given the burning south.
The red race, we perceive, like their complexion, occupied a middle region between the two, the blacks and the whites.
This providence was in exact conformity with their several physical characters and constitutions, as well as a remarkable adaptation to their respective complexions, the blacks in the south, the red men in the middle, and the whites in the stormy regions of the cold and snowy north.
If there was not a Divine hand in all this, why did it not happen that the white race should go south, and the blacks to the north? Or why did not the three races, red, white and black, mingle irrespectively at first in the various climes, which most assuredly was not the case, each division of the three sources of mankind studiously keeping themselves apart in a great measure, and, doubtless, far more so in the first ages?
But how is it shown that the hot countries of the earth are adapted to the comforts of the negro race more than to the whites, or rather that the negro race was formed suitable to the countries they were to people? It is shown from their formation. The bones of the negro’s head are vastly different from those of the white man’s, consisting in the difference there is in their respective thickness; the former being made far stronger, thicker, harder and more compact in relation to the sutures, or seams of the skull. In the white man’s head, the sutures are more loosely united than the negro’s, which is nearly as firmly knit together as if there were no sutures at all, or as if the head was but one continued bone.
This being allowed, it yet remains, says one, to show the advantage of a thick skull in a hot country over a thin one. This, as we apprehend, is easily done, as the great thickness of the skull bone is an admirable defense of the brain against the sunstroke. Were it not for this, that portion of the negro population, who live almost continually in the open air beneath the fervor of a tropical sun, would soon be totally cut off, as it is well known that the whites cannot endure this kind of exposure without great danger, as many lose their lives this way, although their heads are covered with a hat, a turban, or some such defense. But the negro is never afflicted in this way by the sun; no, not even their children, though they are continually wandering on the wilds and in the deserts, bare-headed and naked.
But, says the queerist, do not the skull bones of the whites increase in thickness in hot countries, thereby showing that it is the climate which does this, and that originally, the heads of all men were alike, and thus proving that the climates give complexions, as well as formations, to all the human family? Our answer is, that no such phenomenon as the thickening of the heads of white men, who have lived thousands of years in their posterities, in Africa, has ever been known to happen.
MAN is a distinct creature from animals, or dumb beasts, and is not affected, as they are, by circumstances and climates; God has not produced his image, or likeness, after so mutable a fashion, as that the elements should have power to change it. But, says one, is it the body, then, which was made in the likeness of God? Oh no, it was the mind; but as the form of the head, no doubt, gives form to the mind, or, in other words, controls its powers by contraction or expansion, it would follow, that if climate can change man’s shape and color as it does dumb animals, then, also, it can change the powers of the human mind from its original stamp; and thus the true image of God in man, as given to Adam and his blood, would become another creature, and some other likeness, which idea is abhorrent to the relation which exists between the Creator and his own image, in man.
Can any thing, therefore, be more evident, than that God has given the negro his thick skull for this particular reason?
This curious difference between the heads of the two races, was, even in ancient times, a matter of wonder; for Herodotus, who lived 450 years B. C, and traveled much in the different countries of Asia and Africa, has mentioned it in book 3d, of his travels, p.12, and says, that when in Egypt, the people showed him a place where a great battle was once fought between the Egyptians and the Persians, and the bones of the slain, on both sides. The following are his Words: “By the people inhabiting the place where this battle was fought, a very surprising thing was pointed out to my attention. The bones of those who fell in the engagement, were soon afterward collected and separated into heaps. It was observed of the Persians, that their heads were so extremely soft, as to yield to the slightest impression, even of a pebble; those of the Egyptians, on the contrary, were so firm, that the blow of a large stone could hardly break them.”
Thus we see, that the same circumstance—that of the great thickness of the negro’s head—was always, as it is now, a formation suited to their condition.
The peculiar form of the negro’s foot goes, also, to establish the doctrine of adaptation. THIS peculiarity consists in the great length and width of that limb, the extraordinary protrusion of the heel backward, placing the leg nearly in the middle of the foot in many instances. This circumstance is also favorable to them in passing over deep miry and sandy places, morasses and swampy grounds, which trait, it is said, characterizes much of the wilds of Africa.
This circumstance—the great size of the negro’s foot, is noticed by Pliny, a Roman Historian.
In the production of the negro’s skin, there is a circumstance no less curious and admirable than are the other two peculiarities; and this is the placing, by the Divine hand, in the cutaneous covering of their bodies, myriads of little cups of pellucid water mingled with the capillary vessels. By this means, the sun’s rays are thrown off, as they are from the face of the waters of lakes, seas and rivers, or the dew drops of the ground, by which that cool and moist condition of the surface of the negro’s body is produced—but this is not so with the white man.
On this account, the prevalence of these water cells, or particles, in the skin of the African, they are less capable of enduring the cold than a white man, whose skin is not thus formed. In cold countries, the negro trembles and withers in the blast, while the white man rejoices in the tempest and the snow; but in the hot regions, the former stretches forth his limbs, his eyes sparkle, and his whole person becomes alive with activity and force, while the latter is enfeebled, flies to some shade, and faints from the effect of the heat.
The great thickness of the skull of the African seems to be a matter of exultation to the race, as in this way they are furnished with a powerful weapon, both of attack and defense, as one blow of this dreadful bone against the head or body of a white man, or of themselves, is found to be decisive, and sometimes even fatal. Instances are known among this people who, to show their power in this way, have actually driven their heads through a common board fence, when the splinters, closing round the neck, held them fast, where they must have died, had they not been cut out by some friendly hand.
The great thickness and hardness of the heads of this people—the African race—is, in another respect, a singular providence in their favor, as a defense against the blows of angry masters, in a state of servitude—it being almost impossible to break their skulls even with a club.
There is still another particular in which they are favored by the Divine goodness, and this is, not being as subject to some diseases—such as the yellow fever, fever and ague, and bilious complaints—as are white men, and in also being generally longer lived.
From the foregoing, and from the fact that the negro race have, in all ages, flourished most in the hot countries of the earth, as in Africa, and the tropical islands, it is evident, therefore, that they were formed and fitted for their place and condition on the globe. If this be true, then we have made out our position, which is, that God formed and adapted every creature to the country and elements suited to their natures, so as to compete with difficulties, and to enjoy their being; wherefore, from the facts of the case agreeing with this opinion, the negro was created as he is, and has not been produced and modeled by circumstances and accidents.
The earth was made, and hung amid the air,
A fabric great and huge, yet wondrous fair,
On which was placed all things, that walk or fly.
And each adapted to its destiny.
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